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Sustainable e-recruiting portals: how to motivate applicants to stay connected throughout their careers? Furthermore, severe disturbances, such as anxiety and depressive disturbances are linked to the Burnout-syndrome. The range of somatic symptoms include headaches, gastro-intestinal disorders irritable stomach, diarrhea , or cardio-vascular disturbances such as tachycardia, arrhythmia, and hypertonia . As Burnout can be seen as a process, sometimes lasting many years, the range of symptoms always depend on the duration and severity of the illness.
From the perspective of society, there is an increased risk of repeated or long periods of absence from work and early invalidity . Freudenberger describes the Burnout-syndrome in twelve stages  , and links each stage with certain symptoms. It has to be clarified, that the duration of each stage is highly individual, some can last for months, some for days and some may be skipped altogether. It is also not unheard of, that patients go back and forth between stages, as these overlap.
Also healthy people experience certain stages of this cycle, as stress occurs in every working-situation — however, a healthy person will fall back to a healthy state, once the stressful situation is mastered. As mentioned above, this study intends to combine self-reflected knowledge and scientific data. After numerous researches, the symptoms of the Burnout-syndrome have been well documented. However, one question remains mainly unanswered — How do the people affected experience their own body?
The phrase body image was first coined by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder . A person's body image is thought to be, in part, a product of their personal experiences, personality, and various social and cultural forces. A person's sense of their own physical appearance, usually in relation to others or in relation to some cultural "ideal," can shape their body image. A person's perception of their appearance can be different from how others actually perceive them. Body boundary represents the experience of bodily borders, meaning the ability differentiate between body and surroundings.
Body attitude, also called body satisfaction, stands for the sum of attitudes towards the own body and furthermore the skills to interpret body signals, such as pain and tension. The satisfaction with the body is also an item of interest in this study. The item in question in this case is, how the patients evaluate the different parts of their body - do they have rather positive or negative feelings towards it.
Beside the question of satisfaction with their body, patients were also tested on how differentiated they are able to feel their body?
It is argued in specialist literature that patients who suffer from psychological disturbances experience their body less differentiated than healthy people . To be able to focus on areas of dissatisfaction goes hand in hand with not feeling dissatisfied with the body as a whole, only due to a malfunction of one body part, thus stabling the concept of oneself. Once a person is able to distinguish that an impairment of one body area does not lead to a breakdown of the entire system, but rather is something that can be corrected if focused on, the way is pathed to a healthier self.
The layout was modified by Glawischnig  to serve as a testing tool for grownups. Above those, the interviewee can find directions on how to fill out the schemes. These directions were also read out by the interviewer and clarified if needed. To avoid misunderstandings, the directions were formulated as simple as possible.
Also the portraiture of the genital area and nipples was forgone, to prevent any kind of misinterpretation. Figure Later the drawing tests were evaluated using a standardized evaluation scheme Figure 3. The level of differentiation was evaluated by counting the differentiated coloured regions in case of symmetric areas, such as ears, eyes, arms and legs the two regions counted as one if they were rated with the same colour and later divided by the total number of regions The group consisted of 24 female and 23 male patients, aged between 38 and All patients were assigned by the chief resident and the participation was voluntary.
The control group consisted of 22 women and 14 men, aged between 18 and The participation was voluntary. Not only do the results show a significant difference between the group suffering from burnout and the control group. It was useful to divide the patients into sub-categories. Two sub-categories were formed of people showing distinct features in their CaPDTs, and a third group was formed, as they seemed to show less difference to the control group as the former two. Interestingly, the groups not only differed in their body satisfaction and ability to differentiate their bodies, but also showed that these factors improved over the time of hospitalization.
In the following part, firstly the results will be presented in form of graphs, followed by an explanation. In the last section of this article, the conclusion of the findings will be presented. The graph Figure 4 shows the difference between the sum of all interviewed patients and the control group.
It can be seen, that the control group is more satisfied with their body 2,12 vs. The detected differences between the group of Burnout-patients and the control group regarding body-satisfaction and -differentiation are not based on coincidence, but underlie a systematic effect. Both samples originate from diverse populations. After showing that there is a significant difference between burnout patients and the control group, sub-categories of the burnout-patients will be formed, as the results of tests were very different. Firstly these differences will be shown by numbers, followed by examples of the tested people.
Type I shows a very low satisfaction with its body, standing at 3,7, whereas Type II seems to be very satisfied, standing at 1, Type III 2,94 can be found at the middle of the spectrum. The detected differences between the various types of Burnout-patients regarding body-satisfaction are not based on coincidence, but underlie a systematic effect.
All samples originate from diverse populations. This time however, they are on the same side. The detected differences between the various types of Burnout-patients regarding body-differentiation are not based on coincidence, but underlie a systematic effect. The graph above Figure 7 shows the average duration of hospitalization of the patients at the point of the testing. After showing the significant differences between the various burnout-patients, the following part of this article intends to characterize the different types.
This group of patients shows a very specific way of coloring the body image drawing test.
Instead of coloring the entire schema, these patients only choose to highlight very few areas. It can be said, that these patients only feel their body in case of pain. Both their levels of satisfaction level of satisfaction 3,7 and differentiation 0,15 are very low. The following figure Figure 8 shows the results of a typical patient of this group. The members of this group had been hospitalized by an average of 2,4 weeks upon the testing took place. The level of satisfaction is very high 1, In this case, the patients level of differentiation is very low 0,09 , meaning that the members of this group lack a stable self, which would involve a certain level of differentiation.
Only one additional color is allowed, covering a maximum of two small regions for example the shoulders or hands. Members of this group had been hospitalized by an average of 1,7 weeks at the time they were tested. In figure 10a a typical member of this group can be seen. This type is the closest to the control group, with an average of level of satisfaction 2,94 and a higher level of differentiation 0,19 than the other two types. These results, however, are not surprising, as the members of this group had been in therapy for an average of 4,23 weeks when they were tested.
In figure 10b a member of this group can be seen, beside a member of the control group. The findings show a wide range of results, and it is impossible to cover and interpret all of them in one article. Burnout patients, especially in the early stages of therapy, seem not to be conscious of their bodies. Either they experience it as one whole, without being able to differentiate between body parts, or they experience only disconnected areas of pain.
Either way, the level of differentiation is very low. The two types, who had not experienced a lot of therapy, due to the fact that their hospitalization had not been long before the testing, show a severe difference in level of satisfaction, however over the course of the therapy they experience, these levels approach the levels of the control group. These results underline the importance of therapy. To sum up the findings regarding the types of Burnout-patients, it can be said, that at the beginning of their hospitalization, the patients can be divided into two groups.
One of them with a very low level of body satisfaction Type I-selective type , and the other with a very high level of satisfaction Type II-totalitarian type. Both groups however, share a very low level of differentiation, compared to the control group.